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Memorize the origin and English vocabulary
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Memorize Vocabulary origin and

194 English Vocabulary origin and method ─ ─ Memorize vocabulary skills
1, Chemistry Chemistry
Ancient alchemist who always wanted to find a way to be inferior metals into gold. By now the principle of atomic fission that their idea is not a general people think so foolish. The ancient Egyptians invaded Europe, will they studied alchemy, together with its naming al-kimia together into Europe. Later, the word became alchemy, "Alchemy of the people" called alchemist, and finally became chemistry, "chemistry" concept is from the "alchemy" evolved come.
2, Geology Geology
"Geology" is the study of matter and the formation of the Earth's crust is constructed to investigate the formation and development of Earth science. Geology is coming from Greek, ge that "earth";-ology, "science", that is the scientific study of the Earth itself.
3, Law Legal
"Law" is enacted by the legislature, the state power to ensure the implementation of the rules of conduct. Law written in Old English lagu, meaning "something laid down (set down things)."
4, Electricity Power
The ancient Greeks used amber making love talisman, confident person wearing this talisman can lead to love. They found that rubbing amber attract feathers, thread and other small things, friction will emit sparks. They put this friction electrification phenomenon called elektron. From the Greek elektor, meaning "shining sun", after writing into Latin electrum. English evolved into electricity.
5, Atom atom
Ancient Greeks believed that it is impossible for an infinite period character segmentation go, the more points smaller, and finally small enough to not be divided. They put "atomic" called atomos: a being "not"; tomos, "cut" means "can not be divided" after the word in the English language evolved atom. Although it has been found that "atom" is not "no longer divided, " however convention, "atomic" name still atom handed down.
6, Uranium Uranium
"Uranium" is a radioactive metallic element, chemical symbol U, is mainly used to produce atomic energy. The famous physicist Marie Curie was a uranium experiments and found that the radioactivity.
Uranium The word is from Greek mythology, a name of God come. 1781, British German astronomer Herschel (Sir William Herschel) has not yet been discovered satellites discovered planet, so he borrowed the Greek myth of "King" Ouranos name, named for the planet Uranus. Namely, "Uranus." Eight years later, the German chemist Kloproth found the first 92 kinds of elements. To commemorate Herschel and his planet, he named this element is uranium, we simply translated as "uranium."
7, X-ray X-ray
X-ray, also known as X-rays, or transliterated as "love g Division Light", is a German physicist Roentgen (Wilhelm Konrad von Roentgen) found, and thus also called "Roentgen Ray."
One day in 1895, Roentgen was conducting gas with a vacuum tube experiments, suddenly found that the rays of light can not penetrate through ordinary objects, a finding that he was very surprised. A few years later a curious friend asked the professor: "When you find these rays, is how you think of it?" "I thought nothing, " he replied, "I was doing experiments." Physicists ordered by this name this ray of X-strahlen, translated into English for the X-ray, where "X" mean that the nature of this radiation has not been proved, are still unknown.
8, School school
School The word comes from the Greek word schole, meaning "leisure." It seems the ancient Greeks, that those engaged in the war and engage in politics are hard, but only the "leisure" talent have time reading and learning. Later, the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, Plato lecture to the place where the youth is called schole, after the word into the Latin word school, then by the English borrowed.
And the school there is a closely related word: scholar (scholars). Similarly, the term refers to those who have "leisure" time reading, research, ideas and academic discussion.
9, Education Education
Education is inspiration, guidance, training a new generation. School teachers is the most important educators, their job is to put students inherent talent, the ability to guide it. Inspired out, but such a process is, "education." The original meaning of the English word educate just as well. The word comes from the Latin e-being "out"; duco-"lead", together is the lead out (boot up, inspire).
10, Astronomy Astronomy
astronomy comes from the Greek, literally means "the distribution of scientific research planet", astron that "star"; nemo, "arrange", astronomy, which is the study of the moon and stars and other celestial bodies in the universe distribution, operation rules, celestial structure of the universe, nature and development of science.
11, Geography Geography (Science)
"Geography" is the study of Earth's plains, mountains, rivers, climate and other natural environment and property, transportation, residential and other social factors, a science. Geography comes from the Greek, ge, "earth"; grapho, "write" or "describe". Thus geography (geography) is the "description Earth" science.
12, Geometry Geometry (school)
geometry originally referred to the "geodetic" comes from the Greek, ge that "earth"; metro, "measure" (measure). Now the "Geodesy" is called geodesy.
13, Algebra Algebra
Algebra word is the ancient Arabs from their medical terminology al jebr ("amputation followed by" or "orthopedic") to get inspiration, so as to support math section - algebra, creating a vivid phrase ilm al- jebr wa'l-muqabalah, meaning "to simplify the calculation using the formula, " Italy will come to a very truncated phrase, the middle of the word changed to algebra, however, retains the word until the 17th century "orthopedic", "pick limb" of the original meaning yet.
14, Anthropology Anthropology
"Anthropology" is the study of human distribution, origin, evolution, early cultures, beliefs, customs and ethnic classification of the sciences.
Anthropology in ancient Greek writing anthroplogos, anthros that is, "human", logos or "learning", "research" together is the "study of human science."
Anthropology word first appeared in ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle's writings; but there was no "anthropological" meaning, but rather how to "treat human beings."
15, Rostrum podium
The word in modern English as "forum", "podium", "reviewing stand" and other solutions, "(Tiananmen) tower" is also used it, namely the Tien An Men Rostrum. You probably can not imagine, rostrum original meaning was "bird's beak"! But look at the history of the evolution of the term, you will feel from the "bird's beak" to "podium" is not illogical.
The word originated in Latin rodo, meaning "little by little to eat", and gradually evolved into a rostrum, meaning it becomes "bird's beak" because the birds are with its beak pecking little by little things. Later, they used to refer to the Roman warships rostrum beak-shaped bow. Meanwhile, the Roman podium is used to the ship seized in war history "beak-shaped bow" and a metal ram for decoration, so the "beak-shaped bow" that is rostrum, and became the "Podium", " podium, "synonymous still in use.
16, Library Books
library derived from the Latin librarius, meaning "has books." It is derived from the word liber, which means "book" or to characterize the letters "bark."
However, the majority of the world's libraries have broken the "own book" boundaries, in addition to books, it also includes owns newspapers, magazines, manuscripts, archives, and even audio tapes, slides and movie film, etc.
17, Laboratory Laboratory
The word can be abbreviated as lab, it comes from the medieval Latin word laboratorium, the term originated in the labor, which means "labor." Laboratory true meaning is "the place of labor", where many scientific phenomena and principles are found, finding out.
18, College School
The term generally refers to the comprehensive university colleges, such as Harvard University, the College of Liberal Arts, Science, etc.; also refer to independent schools such as Teachers College (a teachers college), Agricultural College (a college of agriculture), Medicine ( a medical college) and so on. It is the source of the collegium of the Latin word, col namely "with", lego, "choose", meaning that students are "single with" learning industry here.
19, Academy colleges; Military Academy
It is said that in ancient times there is a girl named Helen of Sparta, was a legendary hero Theseus (Theseus) robbed, Helen's two twin brothers Castor (Castor) and Polydeuces Adams (Polydeuces ) - Castor and Pollux are now two Gemini star - four to find their sister, but did not find, and finally they met a farmer named Akkadian Holmes (Akademos), he provides a hijacking and robbed people's whereabouts. As a farmer has such a high vigilance thank the gods always guarded Akkadian Holmes garden. This is the Greek mythology a famous story.
Later, the great philosopher Plato taught in this garden where, so this garden Holmes under the Akkadian name was called academeia. Many years after the death of Plato, his students and followers are still held academic discussion then. Of course, he was provided after the academy this means learning spaces of the word.
20, Museum Museum This word comes from the Greek word Museion; meaning "Temple of Muses." Samuels (the Muses) is in charge of music, poetry, dance, astronomy nine goddesses in general. They like living in the foothills of the Greek Nampa that Texas and Helicon Spring in the mountains among. Therefore, there are still fountain of knowledge (source of knowledge), springs of inspiration (inspiration) argument. Muse goddesses out of admiration, the ancient Greeks art and natural sciences Muse items placed in the temple, that mouseion inside.
In 280 BC, the ancient Egyptian king Ptolemy of Alexandria built the West's first collection of cultural relics museum, is said to Muse named, which is one of the ancient world's most famous museums, there has been nearly seven century, and later burned in the flames of war.
Text in European countries so far, whether English, French, German, etc., used the "museum" called museum.
21, Pen Pen
Ancient Europeans have made ​​use of reeds, "pen", written on papyrus made ​​of "paper" on. Appeared in about the seventh century AD, "Ling tube", which uses swan or goose feathers tube made ​​pen.
Pen word in Old English writing penn, derived from the Latin penna, meaning "feather, feathers tube" that made ​​feather pen. There are still "Ling tube pen" name was called quill pen, "quill" also "Ling tube" shows is "overlapping agencies" But the convention, they can not break the "overlapping institutions." The pen has now evolved with the development of science today, fountain pens, iridium-point pen, pens, etc., completely stripped of the "feather" means.
22, Pencil Pencil
Pencil is comes from the Latin word pencillum. Means "little tail", referring to Western Europe during the past one people write with a brush, brush exactly like the kind of small tail. Later, people invented made ​​of wood and graphite pen, a pencil but still this is called Xi Yong, at first a crown on the front of lead (Pb) term, in fact, not the graphite lead, our country has not yet put this graphite The pen is made ​​is called "pencil" do?
23, Ink Ink
This consists of three letters of the English word, but it has nine letters ancestors, it is a Greek word: kauterion, meaning that stigmatized the word "iron", the verb to cauterize, or "branding." The ancient Greeks not only fight for his cattle with a hot iron branded Sakura also use it to make art. Ie with a soldering iron to wax pigments fixed on the screen, called by their name for encauston, namely "branded into" art known as "wax painting." Latin word into the encauston encauatum, the meaning has changed, specifically refers to the ancient Roman emperors instructions document with a purple pigment. Old French will simplify it enque or enke, refers to the ink. Middle English word absorb this, writing inke, later reduced to ink.
24, Eraser Eraser
18th century physicist Joseph Priestley discovered one in South America called caoutchouc gum to wipe traces of pencil, so this kind of thing was called rubber, is from the verb rub (rub) derived, means used to wipe Pencil word work - eraser.
History Eraser is very long term, it is derived from the Latin erado, meaning "removed", "scrape." Romans is like writing with an iron tool, the word families of martyrs in the wax board, wrong, or do not need, and put the wax scraped, eraser literal meaning is "the word scrape wax Tools" . Later, after the advent of the pencil, it gradually turned "rubber" means.
25, Language language
Compared with text language when referring to verbal communication activities.
Speech without tongue, because the tongue is the most fundamental vocal organs, which is the Chinese people since ancient times is very clear. Chinese "word" character itself, with "tongue", which says a man eloquent, called "a glib tongue"; intense debate called "verbal battles"; letter I nonsense called "talkin '; speak Slick called "slick" and so on. In short, a lot of words and talking about comes with a "tongue" word.
Language that is, the original meaning of the word "tongue" in the sense that from the Latin word lingua (tongue) change from. The same source of linguistics (linguistics) is closer to the original word.
Meanwhile, the British native word tongue, not only for "tongue" solution, but also for the "language" talk.
26, Braille Braille
braille Braille, or called the "Braille" is the creation of Frenchman Louis Braille for the blind with a bump sign writing, tactile text symbol system.
In 1812, three-year-old French boy Louis Braille unfortunate blind eye. Later, he went into the blind school, know letters are read into the letter shapes touch small tree, the children of such a strong thirst for knowledge clumsy method is very unsatisfactory. He grew up, one day I heard a French army captain produced a raised dot, horizontal symbol, the purpose is in the dark night you can also use your finger to touch read his orders. His set of symbols is very simple. For example, a point that "forward", two dots "withdrawal" and so on. It inspired Braille, he finally appeared in the world to create a universal character of this point number system. His name has become a "Braille" synonymous.
27, Grammar Grammar
The term originated in the Greek gramma, meaning "letter." Greek the "grammar" called gramrnatike teche, meaning "alphabet skills." After writing the word into the Latin grammatica, enter the Old French Writing grammaire, after writing into English grammar.
In the UK, there are many centuries Latin as the language of high society, and this time, grammar also refers only to Latin grammar only, was educated in one of the most important courses.
U.S. still has grammar school (junior high school), one of the main training content is the Latin syntax.
28, Style Style
The Romans called a stylus with the tip of the stylus to write on the board wax, write well, you need to have the ability to control the stylus. Style is the word coming from the stylus is now used to refer to a writer's "style", "style", in fact, is his ability to control the pen.
29, Text text
English "text" is called text, "textiles" is called textile, "work structure", "skin texture", "rock texture" is called texture, these three words come from the Latin verb texo, meaning "weaving" , which is very similar with the Chinese, we say "basketry", "weaving", "knitting" also said, "stories", "Edit", "fabricate", "cook up charges", "cook songjang" and so on. Texo derived nouns texrus, meaning "style", "structure of literature" or "way of weaving words, " then another English word pretext (excuse) like to understand, pre from the Latin pre, meaning as "a ...... front", pretext to say "excuse" to weave this thing like a curtain to cover up some things, like the front cover of its truth.
30, Quotation Quotations
quotation verb is quore (quote), is coming from the Latin word quot, meaning "how many?" Initially, quote's meaning is "the book of the divided sections. number the pages"; later used to refer to " Page cited statement by chapter, "that is, " Quotations quote "; finally refers to enclose the statement quoted stand out, namely" quotation. " Therefore, direct speech quotes in English called (quotation mark (s)).
194 English Vocabulary origin and method 2_ Memorize vocabulary skills
31, Paragraph paragraph
Like with the ancient Chinese, the ancient Western languages ​​is no punctuation, regardless paragraphs, no interval. The ancient Greeks to allow readers easy to read the time, on the contents of each new line begins to draw a horizontal line below the word, they put this horizontal line called paragaphos. Paro that "by the side of"; graphos written ", together which is" drawn in the next "meaning in English of this paragraph is from the Greek customary practices paragraphos come.
32, Comma Comma
There are many English grammar terminology comes from the Greek. Comma comes from the Greek komma, meaning "to separate the point", that brief pause symbols.
33, Period period
English "stop" called period or fullstop. Period to every Greek periodus, meaning "cycle", "loop", period still retains this meaning. By the 16th century, the word is used to refer to any time of completion of the action, which in turn refers to the end of a sentence, or a word after the pause time, and finally turned into a dot, marking the end of a sentence.
34, Hyphen hyphenated
English conjunctions symbol "-", spelled hyphen, comes from the Greek, and this symbol appears before, hyphen is an adverb, originally a short word hyphben, meaning that under-one, that is, "together." Later combined into one word, conjunctions symbol "-" It will be two or several words together mean.
35, Euphemism Euphemism
Euphemisms or euphemistic word is a rhetorical device, that is to take it mildly, moderate, acceptable words to express some little nice content. Cases where the Chinese word "death", is a little nice words, people created many vivid euphemism to replace "dead" this disgusting word, such as: "death", "death", "death" "old" and "go see Marx", "cross the grain" and so on. In English but also to avoid the "die" word, and said "He went to his reward."
Euphemism comes from the Greek, eu, meaning "good", phemi meaning "to say" together is "put it nicely, a little." Euphemism is such purposes.
36, Glossary Glossary
glossary generally refers to a particular field of vocabulary or terminology collections. It comes from the Greek word glossa, meaning "tongue", and then refers to the "language" means "word" means "Semantic interpretation." Glossary is the "Semantic interpretation together."
37, Derivation derived
One of the main things from the development of polarized called "derivative." "Derivation" is one of the importance of English word formation. The word is from the Latin derivo changes come, de namely "away from"; rivus. "River", together known as "the mainstream of the river tribes." Verbs derive the earliest in English means "to change the flow of the river." Now refers to any from the main roots of the "export", "lead", "derivative", "derivatives." In English also called derive, that same word "derivative" is quite similar.
38, Verse verse
Old into the country to rely on writing, copying and other living called "pen", it is natural to write with arable linked. English verse, tracing its roots, also happens to be associated with the land. It is from the Latin word versus come, meaning that the child climbed over the plow "furrows." The writing than to "land" is very vivid, not only their hard identical, and its action is also quite similar.
39, Dictionary dictionary
A dictionary is that the people of vocabulary pronunciation, spelling, meaning, and so the explanation of the record, that is how people "say" the. It comes from the Latin phrase move dico, meaning "say", "talk."
Dico out the source of the same, there are many English words, such as, ditto, meaning "ibid", "with the former", ie above and the "say" same; contradiction (contradiction), contra the "opposite", " opposition "means the whole word means" speak contradictory "; verdict (the jury's verdict), vere is" true ", the whole word is" rightly note ", dictator (dictator), which means" I am one person. " Du and "say" about.
40, Magazine Magazine
The word comes from the Arabic makhzan, meaning that storage is the storage of food and other supplies. Super early, all the books have been called magazines, because they are seen as "the storehouse." Until the nineteenth century, before the word specifically refers to "journal."
However, when we use the word as "ammunition warehouse", "bullet box", "(camera) cassette" and other stresses, still using a "warehouse" of the original meaning. French magazin now as "shop" talk, but also with the original meaning of
41, Pamphlet Booklet
The word comes from the 12th century, a famous love poem Pamphilus seu De Amore ("for all the love"). This poem is not binding loose-leaf appears, widespread, extremely popular, and people give it a nickname called pernphilet. Later, any similar thin book, pamphlet paper referred to as pamphilet. Finally abbreviated pamphlet.
42, Volume Volume
volume comes from the Latin word volumen, via Old French into English. Volumen means "book of written stuff", the ancient Latin text is written in one kind of paper made ​​of papyrus or parchment, for ease of reading, it is rolled in a reel. This fall resembling the Chinese character "volume", the ancient Chinese text is engraved on bamboo, and then wear them rolled into a bundle of bundles, or write on silk, paper, roll up collection, and therefore the number of books on " volume. "
Previously mentioned in the wording of the word museum of ancient Egyptian king in the third century BC, when Alexander founded the world-famous museums, including a large library, a world's first public library, the original Tibetan 700, 000 rolls papyrus and parchment writing books, but this library along with the museum, was later times of war Yan destroyed.
43, Folio Folio
A large sheet of paper, folded once only large bound volumes of books, in English called the folio. The word comes from the Latin word folium, meaning "a leaf" extension means "a book" then refers to the entire sheet of paper folded in a large book.
44, Atlas Atlas
Atlas in Greek mythology Hercules, group leader for supporting the giant Titan against Zeus, was sent for hard labor, with the head and shoulders propped up the sky. Imagine a modern put Atlas toting giant planet, and some geography textbooks or printed atlas also put it on the cover, but this concept is already late in the matter, because the ancient Greek mythology, yet "the earth" concept.
In 1595, the Belgian geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator first time in his frontispiece of an atlas atlas used as the title of Atlas and Atlas shoulders painted with the image of the earth to spread.
In addition, some contemporary edifice carved giant image of the giant pillars, supporting the whole building, this statue English collectively atlas, presumably because they like the hard labor of Hercules Atlas fined as the image of it.
Morocco in northern Africa, the territory of a mountain range, called "Atlas Mountains" According to Greek mythology, Hercules Atlas is changed, so called Atlas Mounrain.
The vastness of the Atlantic is also the name comes from the name of Atlas, called the Atlantic Ocean. Atlantic Atlas, which is an adjective, meaning "enormous."
45, Album albums, stamp albums
The word comes from the Latin Manus (hand) and scriptus (write), manuscript or "handwritten."
The word origin and similar postscript, meaning the end of the letter signed "PS, " "and, and." Post is "after" means, postscript that "written on the back." In the letter, postscript and more abbreviated P. S. .
46, Topic Title
The word is from the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322BC) - the ancient Greek philosopher Plato's student, the ancient Macedonian king Alexander the Great's teacher - the title of a book Ta Topika in the past, meaning that "simple things" and later became a topic word "title", "subject" in general.
Modern English said topical songs (local song) still contains topic earlier meanings, as these songs are mostly sung with "ordinary things" related content.
47, Symposium (topics) Proceedings
In English, the different authors of a Symposium topics or symposia called symposium, the word back to its source would really interesting, original "drink together" means, sym namely "together"; pino is academic issues, the ancient Greek philosopher put this conversation to discuss the scene called the symposium, later essays, reviews, papers booklet or magazine collection of essays have adopted the name.
48, Anthology anthology
anthology refers poetry, literature, music, painting, etc. anthology. The word itself is a poem. We know that the so-called "anthology" is from someone or some people's Digest editors selected works from the collection. Editing work, as is the garden of colorful flowers pick beloved beautifully prepared colorful baskets presented to the reader. Anthology is the "gathering flowers, " meaning, comes from the Greek anthologia, anthos namely, "flowers", lego or "gathering."
49, Blurb Introduction
blurb refers to a "printed on the dust jacket of the book books for advertising profile or essay" turn means "big touted advertising, " such as newspaper ads essays, brief strong merchandising, vivid and witty essay broadcast Words like. The word is an American humorist Gelett Burgess (1866-1951) created. 1907 at a high retail book organized by the Association banquet, each guest cutlery are placed one next to Mr. Burgess's book, "You're vulgar hate you? "(Are You a Bromide?). Was a popular trend in society, namely dust jacket of the book is the author and the book contents fanfare, advertising hype. Mr. Burgess is frown on this practice. To resist this unhealthy trends, he chose a beautiful photo as morbid jacket, called her Miss Belinda Blurb, and wrote that said: I sincerely hope that with her ​​photo as review to end all advertising review. "Unfortunately, he would not? Live in this unhealthy trend, and have actually created for the people chose the word blurb.
50, Anthem chants
anthem was originally the church antiphonal singing hymns, priests singing, choir answer. It comes from the Greek antiphona. Its literal meaning is "antiphonal singing" means, anti being "against" or "in return", phone is "sound", which is "antiphonal singing." The word entered Old English when writing to do antefne. But choir singing pastor canceled. Its spelling evolved several times, and finally into today's anthem. Now easier to sing hymns, became the church the whole congregation of the chorus. In addition, anthem now also used to refer to "National Anthem", "Anthem."
51, Copy Transcript
copy derived from the Latin word copia, by the French copie and into English, the original meaning is "many." When a file, an article with the transcript, copy, copy, it "is no longer a", while become "more" this.
Photofinishing film negatives into positives, ie "copy." Use is copy transliteration of the word.
52, Index Index
"Index" is the instruction books of the project or page number where the information content, usually arranged in a certain order, easy to find. In Latin, index means "finger." From the "index finger" extension to the "Index", which touches with the Chinese people's habits consistent, we have usually indicates something with your index finger.
However, English is now counseling "finger" is called the index finger is a word meaning "overlapping."
53, Novel Novel
Check the dictionary, you will find, novel in addition to as a "novel" solution outside, but also for the "new", "novelty" solution, and this novel is the literal meaning of which is from the Latin novella of evolution , meaning "something new."
54, Fiction Novels
The word comes from the Latin word fictio, meaning "fabricate", "fiction", in fact, in a sense the novel is "fabricated", "fiction" out of something, of course, is based on a certain life. " fabricated "and" fiction ", " science fiction "in English is called science-fiction.
55, Biography Biography
"Biography" is the narrative of a life experience level books or articles. Biography is coming from the Greek word biographia, bio, meaning "life", "life"; grapho is "write." Together, that is, "a portrayal of life." "Autobiography" called autobiography, that is, "his biography."
And bio (life, life) and some related words, such as biology (biology), biosphere (MAB, life layer).
56, Romance Romantic Literature
romance refers to the "romantic literature", "legend", "romance", etc. Our movie "Zhang blacksmith romance" in the "Roman" is the transliteration of the word.
Above these meanings seem and city name "Rome" (then spelled Roma) no relationship, however, they not only from the glyph on, but also to romance the word change is indeed coming from Roma. Romance comes from Old French Romans, is Latin Romanus (Roman) derived word, its original meaning of Romans widely circulated a song or a verse story. Since the content of the song or the story mostly depict knights adventure or love story, so romance is transformed into "legend", "romance", "romantic literature" and other means.
57, Sketch Sketch
sketch, namely, "sketch" is a method of painting that while observing an object, while using simple lines to draw out its main features. Sketch can also refer to a brief description of things, and timely reported to the reader essays, such as Memoirs, essays, close and so on.
Sketch the original meaning is: "what a draw, write, " "impromptu" such as justice, The source is derived from the Greek schedios, on this basis, produced Latin word schedium, meaning "impromptu poetry"; then produce the Italian's schizzo; turn has produced a German schizze, Dutch schets; English listening sketch is based on the Dutch schets generated.
58, Discussion discussion
Sometimes lead to a discussion heated debate, and even produce different factions, it is probably the word for discussion "to discuss" the origin of solution because it is derived from the Latin discussus, the original meaning was "torn apart."
59, encyclopedia encyclopedia
The word comes from the Greek word enkyklopaideia, en namely "in"; kyklos, circle, paideia, education, together known as "encompassing the entire field of education and the knowledge of things."
60, alphabet alphabet
The word comes from the Greek alphabetos, and then from the Latin into English, Middle English period writing alphabete.
194 English Vocabulary origin and method 3_ Memorize vocabulary skills
61, Letter alphabet, letters
letter of the word comes from the Latin word littera, meaning "letter", with linere (smear) may be close. For littera a source with some words, such literal (textual), namely "a letter, a letter to"; literature (literature); illiterate (illiterate), that "does not know the letters": "literati "English is called a literary man, or a man of letters.
Littera plural is litterae, meaning "letter." When you put a letter written together, you wrote the "letter" and therefore also for the letter, "Epistles" solution.
62, Capital uppercase letters
The word comes from the Latin caput, meaning "head." Uppercase letters in the word "head", so called capital.
In addition, a national capital, can be said that a country's "brain, " is the "first" is the "head", it is also called capital. In architecture, columns crown, also called capitals some capital, because it is located seat of the "head" portion. Capital as a "capital" when speaking, too, from caput, namely the "head" and cattle (livestock, cattle) from the same source. At the beginning, people's wealth, or called "capital", is based on the number of head of livestock he calculated that the number of the "head."
63, English "add, subtract, multiply, divide, " the origins
English "plus" called add, from the Latin addo, ad namely "to"; do "put" together, that is put to, which is the "plus."
Less, English subtract, from the Latin subtractus; sub namely "away"; tractus "taken". "Minus" is the "take away (removed)."
"Take" is called multiply, from the Latin multiplico; multus is "many" mean; plico, "fold (fold)", multiply that "manifold (several times more)."
"In addition, " called divide, was "separated" means, from the Latin divido; di namely "apart"; vid-, "separate".
Two other commonly used word in mathematics plus ("+" number), minus ("-" number), but also from the Latin, meaning are "more" and "less."
64, Quiz Quiz
quiz can refer to the classroom, "test", "quiz", etc., than the test (test) but also smaller; also refer to radio and television programs such as the "intelligence test", "general knowledge quiz" and so on. Such as Follow Me ("Follow Me", BBC television teaching programs) in the "London Quiz" (London Knowledge Test)
It is said that "quiz" the term 18th century capital of the Republic of Ireland are based on a Berlin theater manager James Daly created. One day, he and others bet that he can create a new one overnight, meaningless, but not for people to accept the word. He hired some of the urchin to spend the night in Dublin city walls on each side of chalk on the "quiz" message. The next morning, it was discovered that the word, but who do not know what it means, so that there is no meaning of "quiz" Soon there will be a "quiz", "mischief" and meaning.
65, Googol 10100
This is a huge figure 1 followed by 100 "0." It was a professor of mathematics at Columbia University Edward o Casner (Edward Kasner , 1878-1955) based on his little nephew full of humor proposed coined new words.
On the basis of the googol, and create a greater number of people googolplex, namely "1010 100", this is a very large number. Piex is shorthand for duplex, meaning "double", "double." From 1010 to 1010 100 mathematics called "googol group."
66, Esperanto Esperanto
有人用"S不難讀"或"S不難懂"作為Esperanto的諧音來記憶這個詞,雖然讀音不準,倒確實能幫助記憶。
1887年7月14日,波蘭醫生及語言家柴門霍夫博士(Dr。 Zamenhof)宣佈成功地創造了一種國際輔助語言,即世界語。這位元精通12種語言的專家是用"Dr。 Esperanto"這個筆名發表文章的,Esperanto的詞義是"希望者",於是這種語言就被叫做Esperanto Language,或Esperanto。
從目前的情況看,Esperanto成為真正的"世界語"的"希望"並不大,當前世界僅約有一百萬人使用這種語言。
67、Music音樂
music在古希臘語中寫作mousike,是從mousikos一詞變化來的,意即"屬於繆斯的"。繆斯(Muses)是希臘神話中司音樂、文學、藝術、天文、科學等的9位女神的總稱。
68、Piano鋼琴
piano一詞是pianoforte的簡寫。
據說世界上第一架鋼琴是義大利造琴家Bartolomeo Christofori於1709年製造的。他認為這種樂器既可秦出輕盈柔和的曲調,又可表達慷慨激昂的內容。因此他用義大利語piano e forte命名了這種樂器,意思是"soft and loud"。後來這個詞又縮合成一個詞:pianofort,英語又把它簡寫為今天的形式。
69、Jazz爵士樂
約在1910年前後,美國維克斯堡城出現了一個"亞歷山大散拍樂隊",其表演多為即興式,樂曲帶有強烈的切分節奏,歡快熱烈,撼人心旌,頓時掀起轟動,迅速波及芝加哥、紐約等大都會以及全美。據傳,始作俑者亞歷山大本性Charles,常訛化Jazz,每當樂隊演出達到高潮,舞臺上下一片瘋狂,聽眾狂熱地合著節拍齊聲高喊:"Jazz,加油!Jazz,加油!"於是,這種借鑑於黑人音樂的現代樂,便被人們稱為jazz(漢語音譯作"爵士")。如今它早已下脛而走,遠遠越出了美國國界,傳遍了全球。
70、Comedy喜劇
約在兩千年前,古希臘有一個節目,叫做komos,這一天,人們載歌載舞,狂歡盡興,一直到晚飯後以火把遊行而告結束。這種喜慶活動是多利安人發起的,他們是古希臘人的一支,主要居住在伯羅奔尼薩斯半島、克里特島等地,以粗獷放蕩聞名。因此,早期的狂歡活動大都是些放蕩的內容。參加活動的主要歌手當時叫komoidos,即現在的"comedian(喜劇演員)"。英語的comedy就是從komoidos這個希臘詞來的。
71、Tragedy悲劇
在古希臘有一種吟遊詩人,他們走村串戶,四處遊蕩,為人們朗誦或演唱敘事史詩。這種吟遊詩人叫tragoidos;這裡的trago,就是"goat(山羊)";oidos即"singer(歌手)"。英語的tragedy就是從trago,即"山羊"演變來的。
可是"悲劇"怎麼會是從"山羊"變來的呢?關於這一點,歷來眾說紛紜,莫衷一是,有一種說法是,當時的悲歌是為向古希臘的戲劇之神Dionysus獻祭的山羊而唱的,另一種說法是,"山羊"是作為節日的獎品發放的。還有一種說法,古希臘的來茲波斯島的Arion在節日時身穿山羊皮衣向一幫色情狂演說,招致了感情奔放的悲劇。
72、Circus馬戲團circus起初指的並不是包括人、馬、道具在內的"馬戲團",而是指"圓形的馬戲場"。Circus是從希臘語kirkos(環、圈)轉化來的。後來,circus的含義漸漸擴展,由"環形場地"而指"馬戲表演",繼而又指連人帶馬的"馬戲班子"。
73、Orchestra管絃樂隊
這個詞在希臘語中原寫為orkestra,指古希臘露天劇場開始從"露天"搬到"室內",英國人把室內劇場正廳的全部前排座位叫作orchestra。而法國人則把這些位置安排給樂師們。今天,英語的orchestra既有"樂池"、"管絃樂隊"、"管絃樂"一層意思,又有"劇場前排高級座位"之義。
74、Sport運動
sport這個詞是disport的簡寫。Disport的意思是"娛樂"、"嬉戲"、"消遣"等。這個詞還要追溯到拉丁語去,dis即des,意即"away",porto。 "carry";合起來則是carry away(轉移開),即"從工作中轉移開去",這恰好是sport的目的。
既然是"從工作中轉移開",於是sport曾一度所指範轉很廣,甚至包括打牌、集郵、放風箏、散步、日光浴等。至今仍有"玩笑"、"玩物"的含義。不過在現代sport常指運動員進行比賽的項目。
75、Amusememt娛樂
amuse一詞是從古法語詞amuser變化來的,意思是"使……發呆";a即to; muser,"stare stupidly(呆著)"。中國有句俗話,"看戲的是'傻子'"。倒有這一層含義,因為戲演得太逼真了,看對的人不免"望著發呆",而這正是一種娛樂方式。
這個詞最初進入英語時,意思作"哄騙"、"欺騙"解,如果當時的士兵amused the enemy,那絕不是"使敵人高興"的意思,而是"誘騙敵人"、"牽制敵人",現在的amusement也可以說是對人們的一種"牽制",也是一種"轉移人們注意力"的方式,只不過它是採用一種給人娛樂,使人高興的辦法罷了。
76、Grmnastics體操
gymnastics的字面含義是"裸體運動",它是從希臘語gymnazo(裸體訓練)來的,gymno即"裸體"的意思,在古希臘,體操運動常是裸體進行的。曾有一個時期,著名的奧林匹克徑賽是裸體跑的,當時的希臘人認為裸體運動有益於身體健康。毛澤東青年時代所著的《體育之研究》中也主張裸體鍛鍊。
Gymnasium(體育館,健身房,簡寫作gym)和這個詞同出一源,是表演gymnastics的地方。
77、Badminton羽毛球運動
你也許有想到,badminton原來是一個地名,這是19世紀末英國波弗特公爵在格洛斯特州的一塊周長十英里的方形莊園的名稱。擁有地產、莊園,在當時英國人的生活中可謂一種"時尚"。Badminton這個詞曾一度指"紅葡萄酒"或"蘇打水"。這當然同在這塊土地上的生活分不開,不過後來人們漸漸不再這樣使用這個詞。
1873年,英國人首次將羽毛球運動從印度搬到英國的這個莊園裡來,不久公爵的這塊領地的名稱的小寫badminton便成了這項體育運動的代名詞。
78、Golf高爾夫球
高爾夫球是一種遊戲,用勺形的捧擊球,使通過障礙進入小圓洞,球比網球小,表面用硬橡皮製成。
Golf這個西方國家十分流行、被稱作"貴族的運動"的遊戲的名稱,許多學者認為是從荷蘭語Kolf一詞來的,其意思是曲棍球或槌球遊戲中的"球棒"。
79、billiads檯球
billiads指遊戲時,複數形式作單數用,譯作"檯球",俗稱"彈子戲"。遊戲時用一根棍子撞擊實心球,這根棍子英語叫cue,法語則叫billiard,意思是"小木棍"。這種遊戲起初叫billart,後來才叫billiads。Billiad還可作形容詞,但只用作定語,如a billiadroom(彈子房);作名詞用時,不指檯球的球,而指"連撞兩球的得分",檯球的"球"仍叫bali(s)。
80、Backgammon十五子棋
這是一種雙方各有十五枚棋子、擲骰子決定行棋格數的遊戲。人們曾在古代巴比倫王國一位王后的墓穴中發掘出一塊已有五千年歷史的鑲底精美的十五子棋的棋盤。
Backgammon的字面含義是"回子遊戲"。早期英語的"遊戲"不寫作game,而是寫作gamen,因此,backgammon即back game,因為玩這種遊戲時,棋子常被"送回"對方,再重新放入棋盤。
81、Boafire篝火
bonfire(營火,大篝火)這個充滿歡樂的字眼卻有著可怖的歷史。16世紀時,bone(骨殖)寫作baee,當時的"篝火"寫作banefire,因為當時的篝火尤指用屍骨點燃的大火,儘管這種燃屍為火的行為要比這個詞早得多。亨利八世統治時期(1509-47),他命令聖徒死後火化,然後讓信徒們從灰燼中尋取聖物。好在bonefire終於擺脫了bones,成了今天的bonfire。
82、Soccer英式足球
soccer是英國十分流行的一項運動,也叫association football,即按英國足球協會制定的規則進行的足球運動。Soccer即是association football的簡寫,起初簡稱assoc,後又簡稱soc,最後寫成soccer或socker。
順便說一下,在美國soccer和football是絕對不同的兩種運動,美國的football俗稱"橄欖球"。
83、Chess國際象棋
國際象棋中向對方的國王"將一軍",英語叫check,它同chess一起,都是從古波斯語shah(國王)演變來的。Shah進入古法語後寫作eschec,進入古英語時寫作chek,後來才寫作check,最初只限於象棋中的"將一軍"之義,後來才伸展為今天的"制止"、"檢查"等詞義。而古法語eschec的複數形式eschecs進入古英語後寫作ches,以後才變為chess,原來"將一軍"的複數,而國際象棋chess,就是連續將軍的遊戲。
另外,古波斯人稱象棋中"把對方將死"為shah-mat,mat是"死"的意思;今天英語也說check-mate,這可不是"棋友",而是"把對方將死"的意思,這裡的mate是波斯語mat的譯音。
84、Bridge橋牌
橋牌是紙牌遊戲的一種。
據說最早的紙牌遊戲是中國宋代一位官吏約在1120年間為他的妻妾們設計的。
歐洲最早的紙牌遊戲在1392至1393年間。德國是最早的紙牌製造中心,他們牌上的圖案為"鈴鐺"、"心臟"、"樹葉"和"橡子",分別代表"紳士"、"僧侶"、"地主"和"勞動者"。西班牙紙牌的圖案則是"劍"、"棒"、"杯"和"錢"。
英國的紙牌最早叫biritch。到19世紀80年代,橋牌在英國風摩一時。起初婦女不打,但到了20世紀,婦女俱樂部日益增多,婦女打牌便不亞於男子。英國紙牌對考了別國的圖案和樂稱,然後自成一套,分別為club(梅花)、spade(黑桃)、heart(紅桃)和diamond(方塊);其中club的詞義即西班牙牌中的"棒",但圖案卻是"三葉草";spade則是從西班牙語的espada來的,意思是"劍";heart,即人的"心臟"和圖形;diamond(鑽石)是從法語carreau(一塊玻璃)的圖案引伸來的。
85、Arena競技場
arena是古羅馬和古希臘圓形劇場中央的競技場地,比賽相當殘酷,常採取人與獅子搏鬥,賽前在競技場上厚厚地鋪一層harena(沙土),用來浸吸受害者的血,久之harena便成了"競技場"的代名詞。後來的圓形劇場也都按傳統習慣以沙土鋪地,隨著語言的發展;去掉了首字母h,成了今天的arena。今天,這個詞還可以指其他競爭場所,如戰場,政治舞臺等。
86、Breakfast早餐
fast是"齋戒"、"封齋"的意思,如伊斯蘭教每年有一個月為"齋月","把齋"的人在這個月白天一天不進飲食。只是在一早一晚,即兩頭不見太陽的時候進餐,齋月滿時為"開齋",是伊斯蘭教徒十分隆重的節日。Break是"打破"的意思,breakfast原意為break the fast,即"打破齋戒指"或"開齋"。早餐是打破齋戒的第一餐,故有此名。
87、Lunch午餐
lunch起初的含義是"一團"、"一塊",英國有兩個方言把"午餐"叫作lunshine(一塊食物)和nonschench;non即"noon(中午)";schench,"飲料";意即"中午的飲料"。
"午餐"的正式用語luncheon即是由lunshin和nonschench合併而來的,其完整的含義是"一塊食物加上午的飲料"。
88、Supper晚餐
supper一詞來自古法語souper,原意是"to sup",即"喝"、"吸食"。這倒有點像我國某些地區(如河南的一些地區)把"吃晚飯"叫"喝湯",其實晚上的這頓飯並不一定是湯或全是湯。
89、Dinner正餐
dinner(正餐、主餐)來自法語詞diner,意思是"to dine(吃飯)"。起源於拉丁語的一個俗語disjejunare;dis即"break(打破)";jejunare,"fast(齋戒)";意即"打破齋戒"、"開齋"、"吃飯",這一點同breakfast意義相同。
90、Banquet宴會
banquet現輔導大型、正式、豐盛的宴會,如國宴。但這個法語外來詞的字面含義既不"大型"、又不"正式",更不"豐盛",因為它的原意只不過是"小條凳"而已,起源於拉丁語bancus,即"bench(長凳)"。
91、Bridal婚宴
古代英俗的婚宴儀式上,新娘子按傳統習慣要喝上一大杯家釀的淡色啤酒,以表示喜慶。Bridal(婚宴)的字面含義正是這個意思。它在古英語中寫作brydealu,即brye(bride,新娘)和ealu(ale,淡色啤酒),合起來即bride's ale。
92、Bread麵包
我們說"一塊麵包",英語叫"a loaf of bread"。但如果你在西元700年左右時進入一家英國麵包房,向裡面要"a loaf of bread",人們準會認為你是在胡說八道,說話顛三倒四,因為在那個年代,"loaf"的意思不是"塊"、"條"而是"麵包";而"bread"當時也不是"麵包"而是"薄片",因此那句話就成了"a bread of thin slice",這當然要鬧笑話了。
93、Toast烤麵包
toast是從古法語動詞toster(烘、烤)來的,這個詞又是從拉丁語torrere、tostum(燒、烘、烤)來的。Toast可作名詞"烤麵包",也可作動詞"烘"、"烤",仍保留了拉丁語,法語的原義。
另外,toast一詞還可作"祝酒""乾杯"等解。這種用法來自於莎士比亞時代的一種普遍的習慣。當時人們喜愛在某種酒裡、特別是葡萄酒或啤酒裡泡一塊加了香料的或烤焦的麵包,因此,直到今天我們仍說to drink a toast,其字面意思是"喝完一杯泡有烤麵包的酒",後來轉義為"乾杯"或"為……舉懷祝酒",甚至轉指"受祝酒的人"、"受到高度敬仰的人",如the toast of the town(城裡最受敬仰的人)。
94、Cereal穀類食物
cereal常用作複數,指穀類或加工過的穀類食物,如"麥片"等。"中國糧油食品進出口公司"中的"糧"字譯成英文時用的就是cereal這個詞(China National Cereals, Oils and Foodstuffs Import and Export Corporation)。
Cereal這個詞是從一位女神的名字來的。西元前496年,羅馬的農村遭受特大乾旱,教士們就求助於女巫占卜,占卜的結果是要立一個新的女神Ceres,並即刻向她擺上供品,這樣她就會給大地帶來雨水。從此以後,Ceres就變成了莊稼的保護神,最早收穫的穀物要獻給她作供品。Cereal就是從拉丁語cerealis變化來的。意即"of Ceres(屬於穀物女神的)"。
95、Sandwich "三明治"
sandwich"三明治"即"夾餡麵包",原是英國東南部的一個城鎮名。18世紀時,這個城堡裡有位伯爵,名叫John Montagu,聲譽很壞。他不僅勝任不了他所擔負的海軍大臣的工作,而且生活腐敗、臭名昭彰。賭博是他的邪惡的嗜好之一。他嗜賭成性,甚至達到廢寢忘食的地步。有一次,這位伯爵一賭了24小時,飯也不肯停下來吃,他指使僕從把麵包片夾上燒牛肉拿給他吃,一邊繼續狂賭下去。於是這位Sandwich城的伯爵便為全世界提供了sandwich這個詞,表示他所吃的這種"夾肉麵包"。後來也指"夾果醬餡等的麵包"。筆者還聽到一位美國人把中國的燒餅夾牛肉風趣地叫作Chinese sandwich。
96、Hamburger漢堡包
hamburger是一種用碎牛肉煎成的圓餅,也譯成"漢堡牛排",現多指"漢堡式夾牛肉餅的麵包"。
本來Hamburger是德國著名港市Hamburg(漢堡)的形容詞,指"漢堡牛排"時是hamburger stead的簡化,但有人誤將它分解成或有意識地將它分解成ham和burger。甚至《韋氏大辭典》(Webster's Third New Internarional Dictionary)也對-burger作如下解釋:a flat cake ofground or chopped meat or meat substitute fied or grilled and served between slices of bread。於是,以-burger混生(拼綴)的新詞接連不斷地湧現出來,尤其是70年代以來,更是光怪陸離,層出不窮。1971年,有人做了一個小小統計,由burger構成的新詞竟達185個之多!詞義也由原來的夾牛肉餡麵包擴展到各種內容、形狀、大孝特性等的夾心麵包,甚至用來指其店舖。
例如:baconburger(臘肉夾心麵包),bearburger(熊肉夾心麵包),turtleburger(甲魚肉餡麵包),nutburger(以堅果佐食的肉餅),cheeseburger(放有乾酪的肉餅),oliveburger(以甘欖佐食的肉餅),pizzaburger(義大利肉餅),kirschburger(櫻桃酒心麵包),raisinburger(葡萄乾夾心麵包),superburger(超級夾肉麵包),doubleburger(雙層夾肉麵包),basketburger(野餐夾肉麵包),huskyburger(健壯夾肉麵包),peachyburger(美好夾肉麵包),甚至9-Lives Kitty Burger,ken L Burger,Californiaburger, Justrite Burger等等。
97、Frankfurter臘腸
frankfurter,又寫作Frankfurt或Frankfort(er),是一種牛肉香腸或牛豬肉混合製作的微紅色的臘腸。它是以德國緬因河畔的Frankfort(法蘭克福市)的名字命名的。
98、Beverage飲料
beverage是各種飲料的總稱,如汽水、茶、咖啡、牛奶等,指除水、藥、酒以外的飲用之物。它是從拉丁語動詞bibere(喝,飲)變化來的,字面含義即"飲用之物"。
99、Tea茶
茶樹約四千多年前在中國就有所栽培,它原產於我國華南、華中、西南地區和日本。17世紀時,花葉繼咖啡之後,則荷蘭人傳入歐洲。
中國有一種高級紅茶,名叫"白毫",因在葉子長出柔細的白色毫毛時採摘而得名,英語也襲用了這個詞的閩南方言,把它寫做pekoe。
關於茶葉本身的來歷,有一些不同的傳說。
有一種傳說認為,茶葉是中國古代的一位哲人發現的,一天,這位哲人在野外篝火上煮水時,有幾片樹葉偶然落進鍋內,哲人聞到了香味,飲用了煮葉子的水,從此茶葉就成了人們的一種飲料。
還有一種神話傳說,有一個人向褚神許諾九年不眠。但他堅持到第三年,就再也支持不了,不由自主地睡著了。待他醒來,他對自己十分惱喪,於是斷然割下自己的眼皮,拋到地上,地上立刻長出一叢美麗的灌木來。他又堅持了兩年仍沉得十分想睡,於是采了一把灌木上的葉子放在嘴裡嚼了起來,頓時覺得力量倍增,不再倦困了。這種灌木叢就是現在的茶樹。
100、Coffe咖啡
據說西元805年,阿拉伯有一個牧羊人,名叫Kaldi,看見他的羊群行為很異常,心裡很納悶。後來發現羊群在啃食一種乾果,於是決定嘗一嘗。他吃了以後,異常興奮,就衝下山去,把這種乾果告訴了別的牧羊人,阿拉伯人不久學會了把這種灌木的新鮮果實弄幹以及煎煮的方法。他們把煮後的飲料叫做qahwa。Qahwa的飲用立即在穆斯林中間引起了巨大的騷動。大家知道,按照伊斯蘭教的教義規定,伊斯蘭教徒是不准飲酒的。一些教徒為使自己在做冗長的禮拜時不致睏倦,就飲用了這種飲料;而另一些教徒則認為quhwa有刺激作用,屬於酒類,必須禁飲。然而信仰伊斯蘭教的土耳其人不管這一套,欣然接受了這種飲料,並稱為kahve;以後傳到法國,叫cafe;後來又傳到英國,叫coffee。
還有一種說法認為coffee名字是從衣索比亞西南部的一個城市名Kaffa來的,因為據說那裡是最早煮食咖啡的地方
101、Cocktail雞尾酒
提起雞尾酒,你一定會想到歐美影片中常有的家宴場面。確實,它起源於西歐。至今已有上百年歷史。雞尾酒是一種由兩種以上的酒加入冰塊、香料或摻入鮮果汁配合成的飲料。它是餐前酒,其特點是涼,不論春夏秋冬,差不多都用碎冰塊來調節溫度。雞尾酒都是現飲現配,不能貯藏,很適宜於家庭自製。1943年11月,在著名的德黑蘭會議期間,美國總統羅斯福宴請史達林和邱吉爾時,就親自調配了晚餐前喝的雞尾酒。他把大量的帶甜味和不帶甜味的苦艾酒倒進放有冰塊的酒壺裡,再加入一些杜松子酒,然後迅速把他們搖動攪勻,即成別有風味的雞尾酒。
儘管國外的雞尾酒配方多達500餘種,但都有共同之處,一般都由三部分組成。一是酒,一般以蒸餾酒為主,如威士卡、伏特加、茅臺等;二是副材料,如各種果汁、蘇打水、牛奶、冰塊等;三是點綴物,如檸檬、橘子、蜜瓜等。雞尾酒可根據具體條件和愛好靈活變換三部分配料,使之在杯中五彩繽紛,芬芳四溢。
至於cocktail這個英文名稱的來歷,眾說紛紜,究竟哪一種是它的真正來源,並未得到證實。不過,看看下面的種種傳說,倒也挺有意思。
有人說,這種酒之所以叫cocktail,是因為當一個人喝了兩、三杯後,就會感到自己像一匹豎起尾巴(with cocked tail),將要對加比賽的馬一樣。
美國奧爾良市則宣稱,cocktail是他們市的一位名叫Antoine Peychaud的酒吧間招待員發明的。他把這種飲料盛在一種叫coquetier杯形容器裡。他們認為cocktail就是從這種容器的名字來的。
有的則說,一位阿茲台克(墨西哥印第安人)貴族要他的女兒Xochitl向皇帝敬獻一種仙人掌汁液做的飲料。後來皇帝娶了這位姑娘,並且她的名字命名了這種飲料。
還有一種說法,英國過去有一種略有毒性的混合飼料,是用跑了汽的啤酒同杜松子酒、草藥、麵包、麵粉混合製成,據說是讓鬥雞食用的,好讓它保持戰備狀態。除去麵粉成份,人就可以飲用,這種飲料叫cock-bread ale或cockale,ale是啤酒,從而產生了cocktail。
還有一種更生動、更詳細的傳說,在美國紐約州,有一條赫德森河,河邊有一家古老的酒店,店主人名叫William Van Eyck。店主人最心愛的東西有兩樣:一是他的鬥雞,名叫"閃電",一是他的獨生兒女,佩吉小姐。追求佩吉小姐的人都明白,要想得到她父親的歡心,必須首先關必他的鬥雞。
向佩吉小姐求婚的大都是些以航海為業的殖民地居民,他們慷概大方,百般慇勤,並投其所好地向佩吉的父親送一些令他滿意的東西,然而這位美麗的佩吉小姐並不愛這些人,卻一心愛著她家的一種祖傳的飲料,沒有什麼比這種奇妙的飲料更能吸引她的,她一直小心翼翼地保存著飲料的秘方。
後來,佩吉小姐終於愛上了一個名叫阿爾普頓的青年,他是快速帆船上的大副。佩吉的父親不大贊成這門親事,在背地裡暗暗地活動。姑娘為了讓小夥子在嚴峻的考驗面前鼓足勇氣,在他前往拜見老人之前,為他調製了一杯這種飲料。正在這時,鬥雞"閃電"飛奔而出,在院子兜了個圈兒,一根尾巴上的羽毛被拌落下來,恰好落進酒杯裡。姑娘高興極了,拿它當了攪酒棒,激動地說:"雞尾酒"!'閃電'給我們的酒取的名字!"他們倆雙雙為未來的美滿幸福頁杯起誓。
順便說一下,用雞尾酒舉行的酒會叫"雞尾酒會",往往用於展覽會開幕、輪船下水典禮、飛機試航儀式、工地開工剪綵或向賓客介紹某一要人等等。它的特點是簡單、活潑、節約時間。雞尾酒會在室內室外都可舉行,沒有檯子,不設座位。如有要緊事,談上幾句,喝上幾口,離開也可以。
102、Whiskey威士卡
"酒"在不少語言中都被做"生命之水"。拉丁語把"酒"叫做aquavitae;瑞典語把"酒"叫做akvavit;法語把"酒"叫做eau-de-vie,都是"生命之水"的意思。
"威士卡"這一酒名來自蘇格蘭和愛爾蘭的蓋爾語uisge beatha,意思也是"生命之水"。英國國王亨利八世(Henry VIII,1491--1547)特別喜愛這種新牌子的酒,便將它推而廣之,在廣泛的流傳中,這種酒的名字也漸由uisge beatha演變成usquebaugh,又變成whisheybaugh,whiskbae,最後變成whiskey或whishy。
俄國人則更簡單,把他們制的酒叫做Bogka(伏特加),意思是對"水"的愛稱。
103、Champagne香檳酒
你也許愛喝香檳酒吧?可它並不是一種香的水果--檳子釀成的酒,而是由一個地名而得名的,"香檳"是這個地名的譯名。
法國東北部有一個省,名叫Champagne,盛產一種起泡的白葡萄酒,顏色為淺橙黃色或淺灰褐色。後來,凡此地產的這種酒,或外地仿造的這種酒,都稱做champagne,即"香檳",地名變成了普通名詞,第一個字母不再大寫。
中國的"茅臺"、"汾酒"、"紹酒"等也是以地名作酒名的。
現代英語中,有人還把champagne簡化為cham。
104、Brandy白蘭地
"白蘭地"是一種用葡萄、蘋果等發酵蒸餾製成的、含酒精量較高的酒。Brandy,音譯做"白蘭地",是brandywine的簡寫,來自荷蘭語brandewijn,是由branden(燒)和wijn(酒)合成的詞,意即"燒製或蒸餾而成的酒。"
105、Wine葡萄酒
"葡萄藤",拉丁語叫vine,用葡萄釀造的酒,叫vinum。
古英語把"葡萄"叫做winberige,意即"vine berry(藤果、酒果)"。拉丁語詞vinum進入古英語後寫作win。
現在的wine除指"葡萄酒"、"果子酒"外,也可泛指"酒"。
106、Benedictine (一種)甜酒
benedictine是1510年St。 Benedict教團的一位名叫Don Bernado Vincelli的學識淵博的僧侶研究並配製的一種甜酒,具有提神補氣的功能,酒名取自該教團的名稱。法國革命時期,該教團寺廟被毀。但這種甜酒的秘密配方卻被保存下來。50多年後,一位名叫Le Grand的酒商量重新釀製出這種甜酒,他在每瓶酒上都貼上D。 O。 M的標籤,代表Deo optimo maximo,意思是"為了最仁慈、最偉大的上帝"。這家新的釀酒廠就坐落在原寺廟的遺址上。
107、Sherry雪利酒
sherry(雪利酒)是從西班牙的一個城市名來的。
現在西班牙的赫雷斯德拉弗特拉(Jerez de la Frontera)過去叫Xeres。一度為羅馬人佔據,Xeres這一名字也是羅馬大將凱撒(Caesar)的變形,這個海港城市周圍是肥沃的平原,遍佈大面積的葡萄園,盛產一種淺黃色或深褐色的葡萄酒,酒名就是以該城市名Xeres命名的。後來Xeres演變為Jerez。16世紀時,這個詞進入英語,當時按照西班牙語的語音寫做sherris,但後來英國人覺得sherris聽起來很像複數,於是就把它改成了今天的sherry。
108、Alcohol酒精
你也許不會想到,"alcohol"在過去並不指"酒精"或"酒精飲料",而指一種"化妝品"。
埃及女王克莉奧佩屈拉(Cleopatra,西元前51年--西元前30年為埃及女王)曾用一種銻粉膏將眼眉描得又黑又長,這種化妝品阿拉伯語叫al-koh'l;al即"the"; koh'l"銻粉"。Alcohol原來指的就是這種描眉用的"銻粉膏"。這個詞進入英語後原寫作alcool,泛指任何細粉或提煉物,"酒精"也屬於一種提煉物,因此也用這個名稱。直到19世紀,alcohol才專門用來指"酒精"或"酒精飲料"。
109、Tobacco菸草
tobacco一詞是從西印度群島(拉丁美洲)的印第安人抽菸草用的"煙袋桿"的名稱(印第安人稱之為tabaco)經西班牙語進入英語的,但不再指"煙袋桿",而指"菸草"本身。
110、Nicotine尼古丁
"尼古丁",俗稱"煙鹼",是菸草中所含的劇毒物質。
Nicotine(尼古丁)一詞是從法國人Jean Nicot的名字變化來的。Nicot寫過語言學的論文,出版過法語詞典,但他也許沒有想到他自己的名字會演變成今日字典裡的一個重要詞彙。Nicot又是一位外交官,1560年在任駐里斯本(葡萄牙首都)大使時,他買了些從新大陸--美洲來的一種奇異植物的種子,即菸草種子帶回國內,從此,菸草便傳入法國。他的名字最後也用來專指菸草中含有劇毒的物質--尼古叮
111、Grocery食品雜貨
這個詞美國用複數,而英國則常用單數。"食品雜貨商"叫"grocer",不過古時候他倒是一個"批發商"因為grocer在拉丁語中寫作grossus,意思是"大量的"。直到14世紀grocer還仍指"只大量出售商品的商人"。
112、Garlic蒜
garlic一詞在古英語中寫作garleac;gar即"spear(矛)";leac即"leek(蔥)"。"蒜"這種蔬菜貌似"蔥",但葉子象"長矛"一樣,是實心的,不是空心的。
113、Potato馬鈴薯
馬鈴薯原產南美洲安第斯山區,16世紀末西班牙人把它傳到了歐洲,到了1650年時,已在整個歐洲普遍種植。美國的第一批馬鈴薯是在1719年由一幫愛爾蘭長老會教徒帶過去的,因此叫Irish potato,即普通的白馬鈴薯。
114、Onion洋蔥
onion一詞與union(團結)出於同一個拉丁詞源union。"洋蔥"之所以得引佳名,是因為它由緊密團結在一起的許多層組成。
有趣的事,古羅馬附近的鄉下人不僅用unio一詞表示"洋蔥",而且用它作珍珠的象徵,至今有的廚師還把一種銀白色的、小型的洋蔥叫做pearl onions。
115、Cabbage捲心菜
cabbage一詞來自古法語cabouche,意思是"腫大的頭",大棵的捲心菜看起來確
實有點象腫大的人頭。
116、Tomato番茄
番茄原產墨西哥,印第安人叫它tamatl,進入西班牙語後寫作tomate,進入英語後寫作tomato。這種植物最初結一種枯萎多皺的果實,因而被誤認為有害的。到了16世紀,人們又傳說番茄能刺激性慾。直到今天,法語還把番茄叫作pomme d'amour(愛情之果),英語也有把番茄叫作love apple的。
194個英語詞彙起源及巧記的方法4_詞彙技巧
117、Date棗
dates是棗椰樹的果實。讀過《聖經》的人都知道,很久以前,棗椰樹是地中海地區很普遍的一種植物。
Date一詞來源於拉丁詞daetylus,意思是"手指",據說是因為棗椰樹的果實形狀有些像人的手指。
18世紀時,西班牙傳教士將棗椰樹的種子帶到墨西哥及其它地方,它就在美洲紮下了根。
118、Grape葡萄
這種水果在古英語中原寫作winberige;win即"vine";berige即"berry";合起來的字面意思則是"藤漿果"。但在11世紀,法國諾曼第公爵威廉征服英國,一大批法語詞隨之加入了英語。種植葡萄的農民們仍然使用winberige,而他們的主人則隨著法國征服者講起grappe來。Grappe的真實含義是"一串長在一起的水果",起源於德語。原指"採摘葡萄用的藤鉤子"。Grape就是從grappe演變來的。
119、Pineapple鳳梨
鳳梨這種熱帶水果很晚才傳到英國。Pineapple的字而意思是"松果"。因為鳳梨的形狀看上確實很像放大的松果。
120、Coconut椰子
coconut(椰子)這種水果的底部有三個小洞,很像一張怪臉:兩隻眼睛,一張嘴。Coco在西班牙語和葡萄牙語中意思是"怪相"、"鬼臉"。Coconut的字面含義則是"鬼臉三角殼果"。
Coconut又寫做cocoanut,這倒不是因為它與cocoa(可哥)有什麼關係,而是由於英國辭典編纂家Dr。 Samuel Johnson(1709--1784)的筆誤,以致以訛傳訛,流傳至今。
121、Cocoa可哥
墨西哥士著居名把可哥樹叫做caucauatl。西班牙人嫌這個叫法繞嘴,把它簡化為cacao。進入英語後寫做cocoa。
122、Walnut核桃
核桃原產亞洲及歐洲部分地區,英國人對這種外國的硬殼果並不熟悉。盎格魯一撒克遜人把它叫做wealhhnutu;wealh意思是"外國的";hnutu即"nut";walnut即由wealhhnutu變化來的,其字面含義是"外國的硬殼果"。
123、Peach桃子
桃樹原產中國,已有四千餘年的栽培史。《詩經》中有"投我一木桃","桃之夭夭"等詩句。於西元紀年之前已在古波斯國有所栽培,後經羅馬人傳遍整個歐洲。
無論什麼水果,古羅馬人都叫malum(蘋果)。由於羅馬的第一批桃子是從波斯來的,因此他們就把"桃子"叫作Persicum malum(波斯蘋果)。後來,malum一詞被甩掉了,Persicum也幾經變化而成為法語的peche,英語的peach。
124、Candy糧果
不久前人們還在使用sugar candy的說法。不管是candy還是sugar candy,指的都是"硬塊糧"。Candy起源於梵語的khanda,意思是"一塊東西"或"糖塊兒"。
125、Derby圓頂禮帽
Derby原是英格蘭中部的一個城市名。1780年,該城的伯爵創立了"英國大賽馬會"定於每年六月的第一個星期三在倫敦附近的埃普索姆(Epsom)舉行,參賽馬匹年齡均須為三歲。這一天,英語叫Derby Day。在這一天,人們習慣帶一種圓頂窄邊的絲質禮帽。為了紀念Derby伯爵。人們稱這種禮帽為Derby。現在這種禮帽多為女孩子騎馬時戴用。不過,現在只有美國人才把這種禮帽叫作derby,英國人反倒把這種禮帽叫作bowler hat。
126、Stocking長襪子
stocking一詞來源於古英語詞stocc,意思是"樹幹"、"根株",而人的腿不是從形狀上、作用上同"樹幹"、"根株"有些相似嗎?後來這個詞漸漸拼作stock。意思是"腿部的覆蓋物";後來又變成stocking,指"小腿部分的覆蓋物"、即"長統襪子"。
127、Trousers褲子
trousers一詞來源於愛爾蘭語truibhas,原指粗俗的"套褲",不入大雅之堂的。
有一個故事講,一次,英國將軍威靈頓公爵(the Duke of Wellington, 1769-1852)去參加一個聚會,走到門口被打發了回去,原來他的馬褲和絲襪外罩了一條黑色的套褲。在那個時代,一個貴族騎馬出門,要在那套比較正規的衣服外面罩上一條套褲,以保持乾淨整潔,但要出席上流人物聚會的場面,就得把套褲脫掉方可入內。
128、Pants短褲
古代義大利喜劇中有一個常見的醜角,名叫Pantalone,是一位穿拖鞋、戴眼鏡的傻老頭子,總是穿一條式樣奇特的褲子,而且式樣經常變換。最早的一種式樣是長褲管、瘦褲腿、肥褲襠式的馬褲。這位喜劇角色為人們提供了pantaloon一詞,起初為"丑角"這義,其複數形式則泛指"褲子"。後來這個詞進入英語後被砍去了後一半,成了pants,意思也專指"短褲"了。
129、Bloomers女式燈籠褲
bloomers指的是一種褲管肥大、在腳踝處束口的燈籠褲,為婦女參加運動時著用。
1850年,美國的女權運動支持者Mrs。 Amelia Jenks Bloomer採用Mrs。 Elizabeth Smith Miller設計的一種衣服款式,即短裙配燈籠褲,來作為婦女解放運動者的制服,並加以推廣,因為這種款式的服裝頗有男士風度。這種服裝便被稱作bloomers。
19世紀90年代,在風靡一時的"自行車熱"中,姑娘們紛紛穿上這種燈籠褲,為bloomers增添了許多光彩。也為這個詞增添了新的含義。
130、Pajamas睡衣(褲)
pajama原是波斯語;pae即"腿"的意思;jama,"衣服"。pajamas原指東方伊斯蘭國家的女眷們穿的寬鬆褲。後來,男人們也穿。現在泛指"睡衣、睡褲"。
131、Handkerchief手絹
這個詞是由hand和kerchief合成的;kerchief來自古法語couvrechief,字面意思是"蓋在頭上的東西",即"頭巾"。在古時候,kerchiefs是被系在頭上的。後來,時興把kerchiefs拿在手裡,於是英語詞就加上了hand,變成了handkerchief。面現在又往往把它放在口袋裡,於是又成了pocket handkerchief。有趣的是,今天當我們說到a pocket handkerchief的時候,我們講的是一件古時候頂在頭上、後來拿在手中、現在裝在口袋裡的東西。
132、Bikini比基尼泳裝
Bikini原為西太平洋馬紹爾群島最北端的比基尼島,1946年起美國曾在此多次進行核武器試驗。1947年,在法國的裡維拉海灘推出一種空前暴露的兩片、三點式女泳裝,其轟動效應不亞於年前比基尼島上撼天動地的一通爆響,於是好事者便以bikini作為這種服裝名。不過,此詞單純解作三點式泳裝並不全面,因為它也是西方太太小姐們進行日光浴的時髦著裝,並作為新潮健美女裝馳名於世;同時bikini也可指"男式超短泳褲"或"超短內褲"。
133、Cloth布
約在10世紀時的英國,人們把任何遮體這物都叫作clath,包嬰兒的布叫cild-clathe,即"child-cloth(繈褓)"。隨著語言的發展,後來clath可以指船帆,繼而指製作船帆的帆布、國王寶座上的覆蓋物等等。到了12世紀,英語成了重要的布匹中心,clath的含義也更加廣泛,泛指一切布匹材料。另外,在此基礎上產生的clothe(衣服)從語音、拼法、含義上都有了變化。
134、Cotton棉花
歷史上有過許許多多種類的布。很早以前,古埃及人把他們織的一種布叫作al-quton;西班牙人吸收了這個詞,把它寫作algodont和coton;法國人吸收了coton,意指"棉布"。1400年,這個詞進入了中古英語,後來又加進了字母"t",成了今天的cotton。這個詞在現代英語中主要作"棉花"講,但也仍可作"棉布"解。
135、Mop拖布
mop這個詞不禁使人想起二百多年前英國一年一度的"雇工集市(mop fair)"。每年秋季,當雇工集市舉行時,尋找工作的人們便手執拖布--作為應僱人員的職業標誌,聚集遊行。英國的家庭主婦們對他們觀察、檢驗,從中選雇她們認為合適的人作她們家中的僕役;農場主們則從中為自己選雇工人。
Mop這個詞來源於拉丁詞mappa,意思是"布"。"拖布"正是用一條一條的"布"作成的。
136、Pillow枕頭
pillow起源於拉丁語。原寫作pulvinus,意思是"墊子",進入英語後寫作pylu,後又變為pillow。這種拼法的變化是簡直想像不到的。但詞義的變化並不大。
137、Blanket毯子
hlanket一詞來自古法語blanquette,是在blane(白色的)一詞的基礎上構成的詞,最初指的是作衣服用的"白色毛布",直到14世紀中期才用來專指"毯子"。
138、Carpet毯
看一看carpet(地毯)、scarce(稀少)和excerpt(節選)這三個詞,你也許想像不到它們竟同出一源,都是從拉丁動詞carpo(摘、拔)派生來的。這三個看起來風馬牛不相及的詞卻由"摘"、"拔",即carpo,這條線給穿了起來。
據說最早的地毯是用拆散的毛線製成的毛布,carpo在這裡就是"摘毛線頭兒"或"梳理毛線",carpet就是由此而來的。
scarce來自法語詞escars(稀少的),來源於拉丁詞excarpsus:ex即"out";carpo即"pluck";合起來的意思是"拔掉"。比如,當人們從兔子的身上把毛拔下時,兔子身上的毛就變得稀少了。
excerpt來源於拉丁詞excerptus:ex即"out";cerptus即"pluck";合起來即"從文中摘出"。
139、Damask錦緞
damask是一種質地柔軟的錦緞,是以敘利亞的首都大馬士革(Damascus)命名的。
另外,是一種粉紅色的玫瑰叫damask rose(大馬士革薔薇),也是從這個城市的名字來的。由此又有了damask cheeks(粉腮)的說法。
140、Cambric麻紗
cambric最初指的是一種織得很薄很密的白色亞麻布,因經法國斯凱爾特河的港市Cambrai(康佈雷)出口而得名。然而這種布因大量生產銷售,後來就出現了以棉代麻、粗紡細織、以假充真的情況,改變了"麻紗"的性質。"假作真,真亦假",正宗的麻紗反而少見。Cambric倒成了這種假麻沙或仿麻紗的代名詞。
141、Cardigan羊毛衫
cardigan是用精紡毛線編織的男、女長袖無領短上衣或背心、開襟,系扣或系帶子。
Cardigan(卡迪根),大寫時指英國威爾士西部的一個郡名。小寫指"羊毛衫"或"羊毛背心"。是從該郡第七位伯爵JAMES Thomas Brudenell源起的。這位性情暴戾、傲慢專橫的伯爵在1853-1856年英、法等國對沙俄的克里米亞戰爭中曾率兵打過著名的衝鋒。他本人愛穿並極力推廣這種羊毛衫,於是cardigan便成了這種羊毛衫的代名詞。
142、Cashmere開士米
cashmere,音譯作"開士米"或"開司米",原指喀什米爾(Kashmir在阿富汗及西藏之間)地方所產的山羊絨毛。這種山羊絨毛,纖維極細而輕軟,是高級的毛紡原料。Cashmere就是從地名Kashmir變來的。現在這上詞多指用這種山羊絨毛製成的毛線或織品。
143、mackintosh雨衣
最早的西班牙探險家們常常為雨打鞋濕、行動不便而苦惱。他們終於找到一種簡便可行的方法,將土著印第安人防潮用的乳狀物質,即橡膠,塗在鞋子上,雨水便濕不透鞋子,在防水的問題邁出了可喜的一步。
1770年,英國化學家Joseph Priestley(1733-1804)無意中發現這種白色的樹膠的凝塊可以"rub out"(擦去)鉛筆的痕跡,於是他就給它取名叫rubber(橡皮、橡膠)。直到1823年,蘇格蘭化學家Charles Macintosh(1766-1848)在蘇格蘭首府格拉斯哥開設了一座工廠,用這種生產真正的防水用品。他是將兩層塗了這種印第安橡膠的布料粘合在一起,製成膠布,效果特別好,於是行銷全球,各地人都爭用這種膠布製作雨衣。為了紀念這位發明家,人們便把這種雨衣稱作mackintosh,這個詞現在還簡寫為mac。
144、Umbreila傘
這個詞原在拉丁語中寫作umbra,意思是"蔭涼",這個詞進入義大利語寫作ombra,意思未變。Umbrella就是從Ombra發展的,意思是"小蔭涼",因為陽傘就是為了製造一個"小蔭涼"。不過umbrella後來的主要用途不是遮陽,而是遮雨。
145、Canopy天蓬
古代帝王把華麗的canopy(天蓬)裝置在禦床頂部以象徵權貴,也是一種美的標誌。不過,古希臘人檔不這麼高看canopy,甚至對它十分反感,因為這個詞在古希臘語中寫作konops,意思是"蚊蟲"。為了避免蚊蟲叮咬,希臘人就睡在帶有防蟲簾布的埃及式床內,並把這種床叫作konopein canopy就是從這個詞經拉丁語演變來的。
146、Bedstead床架
起初,bedstead並不指"床"本身,而是指床所佔據的位置,其中的stead,在古英語中寫作stede,意思是"站立的位置"。其實今天的常用詞instead,也仍未擺脫"取代其位置"的含義。
147、Mirror鏡子
mirror一詞來源於拉丁詞miror,意思是"羨慕"、"讚美"。鏡子不就是製作來讓人們進行自我欣賞的嗎?
出於同一詞源的還有一個詞:miracle(奇蹟),"奇蹟"正是令人"讚嘆"的奇異的事情。
148、Bead飾珠
如今姑娘脖子上戴的"珠子項鍊",過去是祈禱時用的"念珠"、"佛珠",古英語寫作bede,意思是"祈禱"。超初,"作一次祈禱"叫"to bid a bead",人們為了便於記住祈禱的遍數,就將玻璃或寶石等製成珠子,用細繩子串起來,祈禱時就用這些珠子計算、記憶祈禱的遍數。由於珠子是用寶石等材料製作的,自然就有了裝飾的價值。
149、Shampoo洗髮劑
在當今中國,盡人皆知,"香波"乃新型洗髮劑。電視廣告中一位元位元靚俏女郎的披肩長髮秀美飄逸,據說是用了某某廠家的"香波"。然而你若考察一番此詞的來歷,便會失望地發現,shampoo的本義既無香可言,也無波可揚。
Shampoo一詞是從印地語來,原義為"按摩、推拿",用於洗髮時則提示你洗髮的正確方法應是:用手輕輕揉搓,同時對頭皮進行按摩。此舉極合保健科學,又能予人以美好享受,難怪18世紀英國殖民者入侵印度之時,並將其輸入英語,除臨其地,卻也折服土人這一洗髮高招兒,並將其輸入英語,除作動詞"推拿、按摩洗頭"外,又加進了"用洗髮劑洗頭"之義,繼而轉指"洗髮劑",如特製的皂類,水劑、粉劑等。至於把shampoo理解成唯液體的"香波"莫屬,實在是一種誤會。
150、Plate盤子
plate來自希臘的platys和拉丁語的platus,這兩個詞的意思都是"平面的"。Plate(盤子)正是一種平而淺的器皿。
Platter是一種"大淺盤",也起源於這兩個詞。
151、Fork叉子
fork這個詞,在古英語中寫作forca,指的是叉乾草等用的長柄叉。在餐桌上用的叉子據說是一位名叫Thomas Coryate的人在1601年義大利帶到英國來的,他在義大利見別人在餐桌上用過這種叉子。英國人嘲笑他,說他出洋相,劇作家們還在他們的喜劇中送了他個綽號:"帶叉子的施行家"。有一點可以完全肯定,17世紀這種餐叉的出現為改善飯食習慣、改變在餐桌上抓取食物的不衛生的方式向前邁出了可喜可賀的一步,因為在那以前用髒手抓取食物是很普遍的現象。
152、Spoon勺子
spoon一詞來源於古英語詞spon,意思是"木片"、"木條",以後又用來指家中用具。
最早的吃飯用的勺子是用木頭或動物的角製成的,後來用鐵、銅、鋃、稀有金屬等製作。12世紀前後,勺子是餐桌上唯一的餐具。
英國過去有一種習慣,相愛的雙方要互贈刻有或雕有自己手形的精美圖案的勺子,以表示真誠。
另外,spoon一詞還可以作動詞用,意思是"作出在戀愛中的行為"、"談情說愛"。有人認為spoon之所以有這層意思,是因為相愛的人就像碗廚裡的兩把勺子一樣,是親密無間的。
153、Knife刀子
也許你會問,為什麼用餐刀子是圓頭的呢?這要歸功於法國政治家及紅衣主教黎希留(Richelieu,1585-1642)。過去的餐用刀子都是尖頭的。有一次宴會上,黎希留看見他的一位客人拿刀尖兒剔牙,他大為惱火,覺得傷了他的大雅,於是第二天就命令管家把所有的刀尖兒都給剉圓了。到了大約1700年時,這種圓頭兒的刀子開始普遍受到人們的歡迎,直到今天。
Knife一詞在古英語中寫作cnif。
154、Napkin餐巾
現在宴會上用的紙作的小餐巾,英語叫napkin,過去曾一度是大塊方形的亞麻織品。這種大型餐巾,在銀製餐具出現以後相當長一段時間仍還被當作是一種"優美"、"雅緻"、"富貴"的象徵,甚至到了19世紀90年代,它仍然是高級宴會的一個重要組成部分。
"桌布",現代英語叫tablecloth,過去卻叫napery,是從古法語詞nape來的。Napkin從字面上講,就是"小桌布"的意思。
Nape還派生出naperon(圍裙
). 這個詞被借入中古英語。 "一條圍裙",起初寫作a naperon,但由於印刷錯誤,誤將和n排在一起,成了an aperon;aperon後又簡稱apron,以致以訛傳訛,成了今天的an apron。
上面的nape,napery,naperon,napkin等詞都來自拉丁詞mappa,意思是"布"。
155、Purse錢包
這個詞來源於希臘詞byrsa,意思是"皮"、"革",因為這些錢包往往是用皮革製作的。我國也有把"錢包"叫作"皮包"、"皮夾"的,大概也是出於同樣的原因吧。Byrsa一詞進入法語後,變為bourse,意思是"錢包"或"錢包裡拭目以待錢"。Bourse在寫時指世界聞名的"巴黎證券交易所"。英語吸收了這個詞,把它變作了purse,泛指"錢包",常指西方摩登女郎用來裝零錢、鑰匙、粉盒、小鏡子等物品的小手提包。
194個英語詞彙起源及巧記的方法5_詞彙技巧
156、Doll玩具娃娃
小女孩喜歡玩的玩具娃娃,英語裡叫doll,是從Dorothy這個女子名簡化來的,是其暱稱,起初指"情人"或"心上人",繼而指"好看然而沒有頭腦的女子",現在又用來指"玩具娃娃"。不過,今天偶爾也用它指"美貌的姑娘":Isn't she a cute dool!(她長得真美!)
157、Porcelain瓷器
這個詞來源於義大利語的porcellana,原指一種貝殼,這種貝殼的外表有著瓷器一樣明亮的光澤,因此這個詞就轉指"瓷器"了。
158、Jade玉
據說jade這種玉石能治肚子痛。西班牙探險家們深信這一點,他們從美洲把這種珍貴的寶石帶回他們的國家,並用西班牙語給它取了名字:piedra de ijada,意思是"治肚痛的石頭"。古法語吸收了這個詞,變為l'ejade;進入英語後寫作jade。
159、Coal煤
coal在古英語中寫作col,意思是"一塊燃燒著的沒有火焰的炭"。而charcoal(木炭)則是charred coal,即"燒製的炭"。
160、Pakace宮殿
古羅馬七丘之一巴勒登丘(Palatine)起初是羅馬古城的主要部分。後來,隨著城市的發展,巴勒登就成了達官貴人、時髦的上流階層的聚居區。古羅馬政治家西塞羅(Cicero,西元前106-43)和陰謀家加蒂蘭(Catiline,西元前108-62)的府第就在這裡。整個巴勒登丘的山坡上,有錢人家的房舍鱗次櫛比。
到了尼祿(羅馬暴君,Nero,西元37-68年,在位期間54-68年)當朝時,他想獨霸巴勒登山丘,就下令將住房夷為平地。他的建築師為他精心設計了一套住所,取名叫"palatium",字面意思是"在巴勒登丘之上",是那裡的第一座宮殿。
法蘭西國王參照palatium這個詞,把自己住的宮殿叫作"palais"。這個詞進入英語後,起初寫作paleys,後來演變成今天的palace。
161、Pavilion亭子
pavilion原指尖頂大帳蓬,下麵供遊藝或跳舞用。颳起風時,帳蓬隨風起舞,活像一隻龐大的蝴蝶。Pavilion一詞就是從拉丁語詞papilio(蝴蝶)變化來的。而公園裡的小巧玲瓏的亭子不是很像一個尖頂帳蓬嗎?
162、Mansion官邰大廈
mansion指的可不是一般住房,而是相當豪華的官邸宅第,或高樓大廈,因此有人在譯曹雪芹的名著《紅樓夢》時,就用的是mansion來譯書名的這個"樓"字("Dream of the Red Mansions")。
不過,這個詞的祖先可沒有這麼榮華富貴,它只不過是普通的住處而已。Mansion是從拉丁語的manere(居住)派生來的,最早出現在13世紀的拉丁語裡,當時的意思是"房舍"、"住所"。
163、Temple寺廟
temple起初的的確是一種"空中樓閣"。古代羅馬占卜都伸出雙手,在天空中劃出一個區域,稱之為templum,聲言這是一個神聖的區域,然後他煞有介事地凝望著這片天空,根據天空中的風雲變幻的各種徵象予卜未來。占卜者也常用同樣的方法在地面上劃出這樣的區域,也稱之為templum。後來又指在地面上這些"神聖的區域內建築的房舍、殿堂、院落";拼法也漸漸變為temple。
164、Orchard果園
幾百年前,這個詞拼作ortgeard;ort來自拉丁詞hortus,意思是"garden(花園)";geard即"yard",是古英語的寫法;合起來則是"花園庭院"的意思。
165、Kitchen廚房
kitchen一詞,來源於拉丁詞coquo,即"cook(廚師)"。Coquo派生為coquina,cocina和cucina,古英語中變化為cycene,到了中古英語時期,又變作kitchene。這些詞看起來似乎很複雜。實際上卻又很合邏輯。廚房就是廚師工作的地方,從cook到citchen就是自然而然的了。
同出於coquo一源的還有:
biscuit(餅乾),這是個法語詞;bis,意思是"twice";cuit即"cooked";意思是說餅乾是兩次烤成的。這同德語詞Zweiback(餅乾)是很相似的,Zwei即"twice";back即"bake(烘烤)"。
Cake(糕點)一詞也來源於coquo,只是管道不同罷了。
166、Closet廁所
closet,又作water closet,縮寫為W。C。,意為"廁所"或"盥洗室",又指"壁櫥"、"小室"。這個詞來源於拉丁詞clausum,意思是"closed place(關閉的地方)"。Closet願意為"私室",如國王的"議事室"、"密室"等。至今仍有"to be closeted with sb。"的說法,意思是"與某人在密室中商談"。
"廁所"、"盥洗室"在某種意義上講也是一個秘密的、不公開的場所。
167、Drawing-room休息室、客廳
在過去,吃完飯以後,男人們仍將繼續喝酒、吸菸、交談,女人們則退到"withdrawing room"中去休息。Withdrawing-room就是"退避的房間",這個叫法直到16、17世紀還很盛行。Drawing-room其實是withdrawing-room的簡寫。
168、Parlor會客室
這個詞過去只是指"談話的房間"。它是從法語詞parler(談話)派生來的。在中世紀拉丁語中,這樣的房間叫作parla toriums,指的是寺院裡的僧人在長時間的參禪打坐後同來訪者交談或僧人相互交談的專用房間。Parlor現在除作"客廳"、"會客室"外,還可作"起居室"解。
169、Dining-room餐室
dine一詞是由法語詞diner而來的,起源於拉丁詞disjejuno;dis即"不"的意思;jejuno,"齋戒";合起來是"不戒齋"、"解除齋戒"的意思。因此dining-roon就是"開齋、吃飯的地方"。
170、Theater劇院
這個詞最初來自希臘語的thea,意思是"看";以後變作theaomai,意思是"觀看";進而變成theatron,意思是"觀看(節目)的地方"。進入拉丁語後變為theatrum;進入中古英語後變成theatre。現在,美國英語中寫作theater;英國英語仍保留著theatre的寫法。
171、Belfry鐘樓
belfry現在常用來指教學尖塔頂上的鐘及敲鐘裝置。其實這個詞起初與"鐘"毫不相干,倒是與"戰爭"有密切的關係。這個詞最早在英語中寫作berfrey,指的是被圍困軍隊自我防禦用的"窩棚"。後來,berfrey變成了一種可移動的塔型結構,從裡面可以向敵人開火,從塔頂還可以觀察敵人的動靜,是一種可移動的瞭望塔。繼而指防護瞭望人員的塔形建築。由於瞭望塔必不可少的是報警用的大鐘,即bell,於是又混生出belfry一詞,用以指"警鐘",由此又延伸指教堂等建築物的"鐘樓"、"鐘塔"。
172、Boudoir閨房
boudoir,['bu:dwa:],是一個法語外來詞。現在的"閨房"常指女子獨處的內室或女子會見密友的房間。但在中世紀時,年輕女人生氣時就躲藏到boudoir裡去。這個詞來自法語動詞bouder,意即"生氣"、"不高興",因此,英語的"閨房"原來不過是女人生氣時藉以迴避別人的房間而已。
173、Chapel小教堂
四世紀時,法蘭西的都爾市(Tours)裡住著一位名叫聖o馬丁的聖徒。他死後,他的披肩(cappella)被法蘭克的國王們作為聖物世代相傳,安放聖物的殿堂也用"披肩"來命名,叫作chapele,進入英語後寫作chapel。與這個詞有相同血緣關係的是"聖物保護人",拉丁語寫作cappelanus,進入法語後寫作chapelain,進入英語後寫作chaplain,現在指學校、醫院、軍隊、監獄等的"牧師"。
174、Cathedral大教堂
人們很難想像,一個教區的"總教堂"(cathedr
al)和單匹馬位的舊式"輕便馬車"(shay)竟然是一母同胞的親兄弟。他們都是從希臘語kathedra(座位)來的,分兩路進入英語。一路經拉丁語進入英語後寫作cathedra,最初專指主教的"寶座"。由於主教的"寶座"通常設在教區中最主要的教堂裡,於是這樣的教學就被人們叫作cathedral。
另一路經拉丁語進入古法語,寫作chaiere,現代法語又寫成chaire,意思是"講壇"或"專業人員的座椅"。繼而chaire又衍生出另一個詞chaise,意思仍指"椅子",進而又指"馬車"。過去的英國人誤認為chaise是"馬車"的複數形式,就想當然地創造了它的單數形式shay。
175、Cabinet密室,內閣
cabinet原指私人收藏標本用的櫥櫃和小房間,是從義大利語gabinetto來的,原義為"小籠"、"小筐",gabinetto又來自拉丁語的cavea,指的是"關放野生動物的場地"。現在博物館的小陳列室或陳列櫃英語仍叫cabinet,博物館的動物陳列室或陳列櫃裡仍然有許許多多野生動物,不過它們都已被製成了標本。
由於這種動物陳列室起初是私人經辦的,因此,cabinet一詞又轉指"私人小房間"、"密室",現在又用來指"內閣",甚至指"全體閣員"。人們很難想像,cabinet(內閣)高行政機關追到底卻是關放野獸的地方。
176、Attic頂樓
attic現指屋頂下的"小閣樓",往往被人們棄之不用,或用來存放物品、養鴿子等。然而在古代,這可是最迷人的住處。這是個古希臘詞,原義是"雅典的"、"具有雅典風格的",而雅典的建築以其對稱、大方、古雅、精美聞名於世。因此,古時的attic該是非常雅緻的房間。18世紀的英國建築,多採取古雅典式,頂樓精美,飾有半露的。
177、Barn穀倉
barn指"農村存放穀物用的倉庫",美國還常指"牲口棚"。這個僅有四個字母的詞在古英語中則寫作bereoern:bere意思是barely(大麥),oern即place(地方),因此,barn原來的字面含義是"存放大麥的地方"或"大麥倉"。
178、Bank銀行
bank這個詞來自古義大利語banca,意思是"bench"。誰會想到"銀行"和"長凳"竟然有直接的親緣關係呢?
據記載,最初的埃及銀行家們,甚至最早的英國貨幣兌換商們,都是從在長凳上展開交易的。這種長凳通常放在寺廟的院落裡。耶穌就是從這種寺廟的長凳上(或曰"貨幣兌換場"上)將貨幣兌換商們驅趕走的。於是banca,即"長凳"就成了"貨幣交易所"的代名詞,後來演變成bank,也就是今天的"銀行"。
179、The White House白宮
"白宮"是美國首都華盛頓的總統府和政府的行政機關所在地。但"白宮"的名字是怎麼來的呢?這要追溯到1812年。當時英國正同美國交戰,英軍佔領了華盛頓,放火燒掉了一些房子,其中包括美國國會大廈和總統府。1814年,為了掩蓋火燒留下的恥辱的痕跡,總統府的褐色石牆被塗成了白色。從此,"白宮"(the White House)就叫了起來。
180、Big Ben倫敦英國議院塔上的大鐘
這是一座舉世聞名的大鐘。通過英國廣播公司(BBC),全世界的人們都可以聽到它的鐘聲。1834年,原來的英國議會大廈被燒燬。在修建新議院時由本傑明o霍爾爵士(Sir benjamin Hall)負責建造了這座大鐘。這座大鐘於1859年6月3日上午11時安裝完畢。它有四個鐘面,每面直徑達22英呎,分針長14英呎。這些銅製的空心指針每件重達二百磅。鐘的聲音來自一口巨鐘。這口巨鐘高七英呎半,懸掛在一根粗鋼樑上,自1923年起,英國廣播公司每天81次向世界各地播放它的報時鐘聲。別看它大,可它並不笨,走起來極其準確。因此,有人將Big Ben譯作"大笨鐘"是既不雅,也不妥的。格林威治天文臺的工作人員們每天替這個鐘校對兩次時間。大鐘極少報錯時間。可是有一次它報時不准,那是因為一個在鐘樓上工作的油漆工把一桶油漆掛在了它的指針上,使它慢了下來。1993年5月曾報導停擺。
Big Ben的名稱是從負責建造這座大鐘的Sir Benjamin Hall的名字來的,是Big Benjamin的暱稱。
181、Mausoleum陵墓
西元前353年,愛琴海附近的一個古國Caria的國王Mausolus駕崩,王后Artemisia悲痛欲絕,將國王的骨灰用水攪拌,一飲而荊為了讓國王永遠活在她心中,她在Halicarnassus城中興建了一座宏偉壯觀的陵墓。後來希臘人便用國王的名字稱這座陵墓為mausoleion。羅馬人借用了這個詞,改寫作mausoleum。英國人照搬了羅馬人的寫法,用來泛指宏偉龐大的陵墓。
現在這個詞還可用來指"大而陰森的房屋"。
182、Sphinx斯芬克斯(獅身人面像)
sphinx是希臘神話中的一個女怪,她有美女的頭和胸,獅子的身軀,鵬鳥的羽翅,毒蛇的尾巴,她蹲在忒拜(Thebes)的一座懸崖上,用智慧女神繆斯教她的怪謎詢問過往的行人:早晨用四隻腳走路,中午用兩隻腳走路,晚上用三隻腳走路,答不上來的人便被她吃掉。後來,著名的俄狄浦斯(Oedipus)猜出了這個謎:人。斯芬克斯惱羞成怒,從懸崖上跳下摔死了。
埃及吉薩(Ghizeh)的金字塔附近有一尊sphinx的巨大石像,據今已有近六千年的歷史(有說四千五百年或四千八百年的歷史)。
從上面的神話故事裡,人們不難理解sphinx還可作"謎一樣的人物"解。
183、Window窗子
window一詞來源於古代斯堪的納維亞語的vindauge;vindr即"wind";auga即"eye"。最早的窗子是在牆上開的一條又長又窄的縫隙,長是為多進光線,窄是為了抗禦壞天氣。然而這種長形的"窗子"與其說便於進光線,倒不如說便於進風,完全成了一個進風口。於是人們就管它叫vindauge,即windeye(風洞)。
184、Shangri-la香格里拉
Shangri-la或寫作Shangri-La,是1933年英國作家James Hilton的小說Lost Horizon(《失去的地平線》)中虛構的喜馬拉雅山山谷的名字,那是一處烏托邦式的洞天福地,終年春光明媚,和平寧靜,富足美好,是人間理想的樂園,堪稱世外桃園。
第二次世界大戰期間,美國總統羅斯福命令建立一處專事轟炸日本東京的秘密空軍基地,偏偏以Shangri-La命名,可謂大煞風景。好在這個詞如今又恢復了她的魅力,試問,誰人不知遍佈全球的香格里拉豪華飯店?何人不想置身其中,一享當年令希爾頓心曠神怡的欲仙之樂?
185、Derrick起重機
英語的"起重機"叫derrick-crane,簡稱derrick或crane。Derrick原指船上的動臂起重機,或叫"起貨桅";後來也指油井或天然氣井井口上的鐵架塔。
Derrick同"絞刑架"有密切的關係,是從一個人的名字來的。17世紀初,倫敦死刑場內有一個名叫Derrick的劊子手,很善於行刑,使死刑犯人減少痛苦的時間。後來,倫敦人把死囚赴刑場說成是to see Derrick。漸漸地derrick就成了"編印刑架"的代名詞。
起貨桅遠遠看去很像絞刑架,吊起的貨物又有點象吊起的死囚,於是derrick就用來泛指起重機了。
186、Asbestos石棉
古希臘和古羅馬人用asbestos(石棉)製作餐巾,髒了不洗,直接扔進火裡,再拿出時,餐巾又變得潔白無瑕。他們還用asbestos作燈芯,這種耐火的燈芯永遠也點不完,羅馬皇帝興建的雅典娜神殿裡的長明燈就是用asbestos製作的燈芯。
Asbestos,在希臘語中原寫作amiantos lithos,(純潔之石),意思是"弄不髒的石頭"。後來,羅馬自然學家Pliny把它命名為asbestos,a即not;sbestos是"可熄滅的",合起來指這種石頭是"不可熄滅的"、"燒不完的"。
187、Road路
road一詞在英語裡泛指"路"時,相當於漢語裡的"馬路"。"馬路"可以指供車馬行走的道路,也可以指一般的路。而road的祖先恰好也同"馬"有關。
Road在古英語中寫作rad,是從ridan(即"ride",騎馬)一詞演變來的,rad就是"供騎馬行走的路",也就是"馬路"。
儘管中國的"馬路"上並不一定有馬,英國的"road"上也不一定有騎馬的人,然而我們都這樣習慣的叫下去。
188、Boulevard林蔭大道
boulevard一詞是丹麥語的bulvaerk經過法語演變來的,bul即"樹幹",vaerk即"work",合起來是"樹幹築成的工事",也就是"壁壘"、"防禦工事",因為過去的這些防禦工事大都是用"樹幹"建造的。當這些工事不再使用時,工事的頂部就用來作為人們散步的場所。或者有的地方就把工事推倒,在原來的地方修建一條寬闊的大道。這種大道,法國人仍襲用了丹麥人的叫法,只是在拼法上略加改變,叫做boulevard。後來,這個詞便用來泛指寬闊的街道,通常兩邊有樹。
189、Doctor醫生
doctor的字面含義是"老師",它是從拉丁語doceo變化來的,doctus即"teach"的意思。起初doctor指任何有學問的人,而至今仍保留了這一層含義,作"博士"講。直到15世紀才用來指"醫生"。這個詞還簡作doc用作稱謂時簡作Dr。 .
190、Actor演員
actor是從拉丁語ago(即"do",做,表演)變化來的。演員就是在舞臺上"做戲"的人。同出於拉丁語詞ago之源的還有active,action,agent等。
191、Scientist科學家
scientist這個詞誕生於近代,時間約在1840年。創造這個詞的是英國劍橋大學歷史學家費米爾。他是根據拉丁詞scien(瞭解)和法語詞science(泛指一切學習的形式)而創造的。但這並不意味著在這以前沒有科學家,只是scientist一詞出現得很晚罷了。
有人對"科學家"下這樣的定義:科學家應具有"敏銳的觀察,精細的實驗,謹慎的分類,證據的收集,結論的研判"的素質。
192、Author作家
作家是從事文學創作的,而author這個詞正是"具有創造能力的"含義。它來自拉丁語的auctor,意思是"使得東西生長的人"。我們有時把某個作品比作"新苗"、"蓓蕾",而作家們不正是培育新苗、花朵的人嗎?
193、Economist經濟學家
英語裡"經濟學家"和"節儉的人"是一個詞,都叫economist。它是從希臘語oikonomia(即"economy")來的,原義是"家務管理"。Economist最初的含義是指用錢節省,善於管理財產和業務使減少損失和浪費的人,也就是"節儉的人"。這個詞從家庭走向社會,從"勤儉持家"到善於經營管理廠礦企業,再到研究整個國家的經濟狀況和理論,其含義也從"節儉的人"轉化為"經濟學家"。
同樣,economy也從原來的"節盛節儉、節約"發展為"經濟"的含義。
英國有個世界聞名的刊物,就叫"Economist"。
194、Postman郵遞員
和中國古代的"驛站"相仿,古羅馬也建立了post。最初,postman是皇室的信使,他騎著快馬將國王的口諭或手諭傳送到附近的post(即"驛站"),然後換人換馬再傳送到下一站,這樣一站一站地傳下去,直到目的地。後來,這些人成了職業傳遞信件的人。
Post一詞是從拉丁詞posita來的,意思是"placed"(設立的),因為最初的post是在漫長的通訊道路上"設立的"換乘站。

Source: yawlin.blogspot.com

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2009-05-25 20:11:38 by austingeekgirl


also: arizona
* Brasch, Mary A. MA/MA LPC
3040 East Cactus Rd
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Phone: (602) 494-1515
Email: debrasch96@cox.net
Board certified therapist in Arizona, specializing in transgender issues.
* Gottlieb, Dianne M.S. LMFT
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10245 E. Via Linda, Suite 103
Scottsdale, AZ 85258 (480) 314-0055
Email: dianne@scottsdaletherapy.com
Website:

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  • Avatar dgbrwnfld Where can i find a gender clinic?
    Apr 20, 2009 by dgbrwnfld | Posted in Men's Health

    I am looking to start hormones in a few years so i can become a female but i do not know if i have any gender clinics around so i can get tested and everything. i live in Toledo, Ohio do you think you can help me find a gender clinic close by?

    • Here you go:

      Crane, M.A., LPCC
      Gender Dysphoria Program of Central Ohio
      P.O. Box 82008
      Columbus, OH. 43202
      Phone : (614) 451-0111
      Email : crane@genderprogram.com
      …ces as well as referrals about gender issues.

      Kayla Springer, Ph.D.
      3280 Observatory Avenue
      Cincinnati, OH. 45208
      Phone : (513) 381-6611

      Good luck with your transition!

  • Avatar love Why do couples need to consider their childern before they divorce?
    Apr 05, 2009 by love | Posted in Other - Cultures & Groups
    • Because it breaks up a family
      it shakes up the child's world
      they care about their kid more than anything

      no one wants to ruin their child's life